These Turkish-speaking tribesmen representing a dominant ethno-linguistic The Lursare group, and historically the most important political leverage, dwell among the high mountains of Fars province. Traditionally, they wintered on pastures in the foothills of the Zagros to south and west of Shiraz, near the Persian Gulf, and moved north to the mountains in the spring. Their dress is almost the same as that of the Bakhtiaris, except for the hat, which resembles Napoleonic headgear.
Qashqai are a Turkic-speaking tribal minority in Iran. Qashqais mainly live in South Western of Iran. In the North of Fars province (especially around the city of Shiraz), and southern part of Isfahan Province, and Eastern part of Chahar-mahal Bakhtiyari and some part of Khuzestan Province. They mostly live in cities such as Firozabad, Sepidan, Ardakan and Marv-dasht
The Qashqai were originally nomadic pastoralists and some remain so today. The traditional nomadic Qashqai traveled with their flocks each year from the summer highland pastures (yeilaq) such as; Arjan-dasht in north of Shiraz roughly 480 km or 300 mile south to the winter pastures (qeshlaq) on lower (and warmer) lands near the Persian Gulf, to the southwest of Shiraz such as: Firozabad, Kazerun, Jehrom, Farashband. The majority of them however, has now settled, or is partially settled.
The Qashqai originate from Aghqoyonlu tribe (Ardabil region, Safavian dynasty, 1500 AC) which is made up of a number of small tribes and sub-tribes including: Amalaeh, Darreh-Shuri, Kashkuli, Shesh (6), Baluki, Farsimadan, Qaracheh, Rahimi and Safi-Khani.
It is difficult to give exact statistics, but the population of Qashqai estimates roughly close to 600,000
The Qashqai were a significant political force in Iran during the early 20th centuries. The Qashqais revolted during 1962-1964 due to the land reforms of the White Revolution. The revolt was put down and within a few years many Qashqais had settled. Most of the tribal leaders were sent to exile. After the Iranian Islamic Revolution of 1979 the living leader Khosrow Khan Qashqai moved back to Iran from Germany. He was soon arrested and executed in public for promoting an uprising against the government