Bam Citadel is an ancient city located on the southern edge of the Iranian plateau, in a desert environment, Kerman Province, Iran. The creation and growth of the city was based on the underground irrigation canals, the Qanāts of which Bam has preserved some of the earliest evidence in Iran. The archaeological discoveries of ancient Qanāts in the south-eastern suburbs of Bam citadel are datable to the beginning of the 2nd century BC.
It should be noticed that the Arg was originally founded during the Sassanid period (224-637 AD) and while some of the surviving structures date from before the 12th century, most of what remains was built during the Safavid period (1502-1722). During Safavid times, the city occupied six square kilometers, was surrounded by a rampart with 38 towers, and had between 9000-13,000 inhabitants.
Bam also prospered because of pilgrims visiting its Zoroastrian fire temple (dating to early Sassanid times) and as a commercial and trading center on the famous Silk Road.
One of the noticeable points about Bam Citadel is its castle. The castle is the most representative example of a fortified medieval town built in vernacular technique using mud layers (Chineh) combined with mud bricks (Khesht). This castle is situated at the top of an artificial hill in the northwest quadrant of Arg-e-Bam.
This artificial hill elevates the castle approximately 5 meters above the surrounding urban fabric. The castle complex occupies an area of 315 meters wide along the east-west axis by 270 meters long along the north-south axis.
Iran had recently a bad earthquake in its west,…earthquake…and …But,…almost 12 years ago…A powerful earthquake destroys historic Silk Road city Bam, Iran – December 26 2003, 5:27 AM,killing over 43,000 people,injured 20,000,left 60,000 homeless and destroyed much of the city of Bam and the old Bam citadel.The enormous and old citadel of Bam (Arg-e Bam)is recorded by Unesco as a World Heritage Site.Bam Citadel was one of the largest adobe structures in the world and one of the most beautiful historical sites in Iran, which dates back to 2000 years ago.Unfortunately, more than 80 percent of this magnificent citadel collapsed when a massive earthquake hit the region.The existence of life in the oasis was based onthe underground irrigation canals, the qanāts, of which Bam has preserved some of the earliest evidence in Iran.The Citadel of Bam is the most representative example of a fortified medieval town built in vernacular technique using mud layers.